Cannabis is most well known for the psychoactive high it produces when smoked, due to the presence of the psychoactive cannabinoid THC. The herb is also being recognised for its powerful medicinal qualities, partly responsible for this mechanism of action is another cannabinoid, known as CBD. In fact there are over 100 different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, many of which are still to be truly tapped into. But are cannabinoids the only group of substances, that deserves any recognition in this amazing and multifaceted herb? The answer to that is a strict no. Cannabinoids are proving to be powerful substances with many different available applications, yet another family found within the plant, and elsewhere in nature, are known as terpenes.

INTRODUCING PINENE

One of the most researched terpenes to date is known as pinene. As its name may suggests, it is the same terpene, that is responsible for the nostalgic and highly satisfying scent of pine and fir trees. As well as providing various cannabis strains with delightful flavours and taste sensations, pinene is also a player in the medicinal field and has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory.

Pinene Terpenes

WHAT ARE TERPENES?

Terpenes are the substances, that give different cannabis strains their own distinct aromatic smells and pleasurable flavors. Terpenes, just like cannabinoids, are made within tiny, mushroom-shaped glands on the surface of cannabis flowers and leaves. These small glands, known as trichomes, can be viewed as miniature factories, that churn out the resin that contains all of the these beneficial molecules. They are what gives many buds a shiny and crystal-like appearance.

Just as cannabinoids are found in large numbers within cannabis plants, so are terpenes. It is known, that over 200 terpenes are found within the herb. Although this might seem like a huge number, there are over 20,000 different terpenes found elsewhere in nature. They have been classified into two major categories based on the weight of the molecule. Pinene is considered to be a “major” terpene, whereas lighter molecules have been classed as “minor” terpenes.

It just so happens, that there are two varieties of pinene. α-pinene is responsible for the distinct scents in pine needles and the herb rosemary, whereas β-pinene is the molecule responsible for the unmistakable smells of basil and dill.

TERPENES CAN ALTER YOUR HIGH

With this said, the presence of pinene in cannabis goes well beyond mere smell. The molecule can actually dictate the way the high of a strain feels and how strong it is. For this reason, pinene and other terpenes are as important as cannabinoid quantity for many smokers when selecting a strain to enjoy or use as medication. For example, pinene is known to increase alertness, yet the terpene myrcene is known to have more of a sedating effect. Pinene has also been discovered to ease the potential short-term memory loss, that is oftentimes brought about by taking in too much THC. It can also help to combat negative sensations, such as paranoia, when a person has smoked far too much than they can handle. For this reason, pinene is an essential terpene, that should be looked out for by people who enjoy the therapeutic effects of cannabis, but sometimes struggle with its potential downsides.

Pinene Cannabis Terpene

PINENE HAS BIG MEDICAL POTENTIAL

For starters, α-pinene has been found to be an effective bronchodilator. This means the terpene helps to open airways in the respiratory system. The therapeutic values of this mechanism of action can be applied to respiratory ailments such as asthma. These findings were published in the journal Inhalation Toxicology. Researches suggested, that these effects may be of benefit to office workers and workers who are involved in industrial cleanup operations.

Further research has identified pinene to be effective at protecting the lungs against certain types of viral infection. A study published in the journal Molecules details both α- and ß-pinene to be effective at inhibiting infectious bronchitis virus. The researchers suggest, that α- and ß-pinene could therefore be considered as potential pharmaceuticals against infectious bronchitis virus.

Another study published by Ethan Russo, MD really tapped into the true medicinal potential of pinene and fellow terpenes. Russo gives a brief breakdown of the nature of terpenes: “Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets, that have been designated 'generally recognised as safe' by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits.”

Russo points out, that the therapeutic potential of terpenes are vast, and that they have the ability to synergize with cannabinoids to create powerful medical effects, saying: “They display unique therapeutic effects, that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions, that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).”

Perhaps some of the most staggering research involving α-pinene is found published in the journal Biologia. The study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of alpha pinene, and the results are further cause for further study into pinene as an anticancer agent. The researches concluded: “Overall our results suggest that α-pinene is of a limited therapeutic use as an anticancer agent.”

A-Pinene

 

Anti-Inflamatory
Bronchodilator
Aids Memory
Anti-Bacterial
Also found in pine needles

A-Pinene

Linalool

 

Anesthetic
Anti-Convulsant
Analgesic
Anti-Anxiety
Also found in lavander

Linalool

Beta-Caryophillene

 

Anti-Inflamatory
Analgesic
Protects Cells Lining The Digestive Tract
Also found in black pepper

Beta-Caryophyllene

Myrcene

 

Contributes To Sedative Effect Of Strong Indicas
Sleep Aid
Muscle Relaxant
Also found in hops

Myrcene

Limonene

 

Treats Acid Reflux
Anti-Anxiety
Antidepressant
Also found in citrus

Limonene
 

HIGH PINENE STRAINS

With all of this important and fascinating information available about pinene, it is well worth finding the strains, that contain good amounts of it and exploring its effects.

HAZE BERRY

Haze Berry is a favourite within the Californian medical cannabis scene. The strain is the descendant of icons Blueberry and Shining Silver Haze. As indicated by its name, Haze Berry primarily contributes scents and tastes of berries and sweetness. However, the presence of pinene also adds a subtle hint of pine into the mix. Haze Berry is a sativa-dominant variety comprised of 80% sativa genetics, with 20% indica completing the mix. This ratio results in a highly stimulating and creative strain that is an ideal smoke before social gatherings, concerts, and periods of work and focus. The indica genetics also contribute a relaxing body stone that isn’t too much to prevent productivity. With a THC content of 20%, Haze Berry is a potent and fast-acting strain.

Haze Berry can be grown successfully in both indoor and outdoor environments, but has a preference for more mild climates. Given the right nutrient and light regimen, indoor plants can achieve impressive yields of up to 575g/m² and reach heights of between 60–100cm. Outdoor plants will put out yields of between 600–650g/plant and reach taller heights of 180cm. Haze Berry has a flowering time of 9–11 weeks.

Haze Berry

Haze Berry

Haze Berry Feminized

Genetic background Blueberry x Shining Silver Haze
Yield indoor 525 - 575 g/m2
Height indoor 60 - 100 cm
Flowering time 9 - 11 weeks
THC strength THC: 20% (aprox.) / CBD: Medium
Blend 80% Sativa, 20% Indica
Yield outdoor 600 - 650 g/per plant (dried)
Height outdoor 160 - 180 cm
Harvest time Late October
Effect Extremely stoned long-lasting and body relaxing
 

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OG KUSH

OG Kush stems from the cannabis growing haven of Northern California, and has spread its roots around the world to become a global phenomenon. Perhaps the most distinct characteristic of this strain is its intense and familiar aroma of citrus, pine, and fruit. OG Kush flowers feature a high quantity of pinene, which is known to boost alertness and ease the short-term memory loss often associated with a cannabis high. OG Kush is the offspring of parent strains Chemdawg, Lemon Thai, and Pakistani Kush, and has a genetic makeup consisting of 75% indica genetics and 25% sativa. This indica-dominant strain offers a relaxing, stoning, and stress-busting high that is ideal for the evening. Her flowers contain a THC content of 19%.

OG Kush favours mild climates and grows well indoors. Indoor plants put out yields of between 425–475g/m² and grow to rather tall heights of up to 160cm. Plants grown outdoors within garden beds produce decent yields of between 500–550g/m² and surge to even taller heights of 220cm. OG Kush has a flowering time of between 7–9 weeks, and outdoor plants will be ready to harvest during October.

OG Kush

OG Kush

OG Kush

Genetic background Chemdawg x Lemon Thai x Pakistani Kush
Yield indoor 425 - 475 gr/m2
Height indoor 90 - 160 cm
Flowering time 7 - 9 weeks
THC strength THC: 19% (aprox.) / CBD: Medium
Blend 25% Sativa, 75% Indica, 0% Ruderalis
Yield outdoor 500 - 550 g/per plant (dried)
Height outdoor 180 - 220 cm
Harvest time October
Effect Relaxing and full of flavour
 

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ROYAL JACK AUTOMATIC

Royal Jack Automatic is named after the legendary cannabis activist and author, Jack Herer. What she lacks in size she certainly makes up for in her powerful aroma and satisfying high. Plus, her stature is ideal for growers looking to set up covert and discreet operations. Royal Jack Automatic is the result of crossing Jack Herer and a ruderalis strain to gift the progeny with the autoflowering trait. The flowers contain 16% THC, along with high levels of pinene and other terpenes that produce notes of pepper, herbs, spices, and pine. She is slightly sativa-dominant and induces a high that is inspiring and creative.

Royal Jack Automatic is easy to grow and requires little work or special attention. Her autoflowering nature means no alteration to the light cycle is required, and her small size means she can be grown almost anywhere. Indoors, plants grow to an easily manageable height of between 40–80cm and provide yields of 350–400g/m². Outdoor plants grow to equally as stealthy heights, making them ideal for guerrilla growing operations. Expect outdoor plants to put out yields of between 70–120g/plant. Growers won’t have to wait long for harvest as Royal Jack Automatic explodes from seed to harvest in 9–10 weeks.

Royal Jack Auto

Royal Jack Automatic

Royal Jack Automatic Royal Queen Seeds

Genetic background Jack Herer x Ruderalis
Yield indoor 350 - 400 g/m2
Height indoor 40 - 80 cm
Flowering time 6 - 7 weeks
THC strength THC: 16% (aprox.) / CBD: Low
Blend 40% Sativa, 30% Indica, 30% Ruderalis
Yield outdoor 70 - 120 g/per plant (dried)
Height outdoor 60 - 80 cm
Harvest time 9 - 10 weeks after planting
Effect A motivating and inspiring feeling
 

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SWEET SKUNK AUTOMATIC

Sweet Skunk Automatic is a hardy specimen that can be grown almost anywhere. This trait, along with her compact size, makes her an ideal variety for stealthy grows and those with major spatial limitations. Sweet Skunk Automatic is the offspring of parent strains Early Skunk, Critical, and a ruderalis strain. She is made up of 10% sativa genetics, 60% indica genetics, and 30% ruderalis genetics. Smoking a bowl or blunt loaded with her flowers provides a high that relaxes the body, eases stress, and inspires unique thoughts and ideas. Her flowers are full of terpenes, including pinene, that give rise to scents and tastes of pine, sweetness, and spices. Sweet Skunk Automatic has a mild THC content of 15%.

Sweet Skunk Automatic is very easy to grow and thrives even with little attention. Indoor plants can produce 400–450g/m² and grow to heights of between 40–80cm. Outdoor plants offer yields of 60–110g/plant and grow to slightly taller heights of 60–100cm. Sweet Skunk Automatic will be ready to harvest a mere 8–9 weeks after sprouting.

Sweet Skunk Auto

Sweet Skunk Automatic

Sweet Skunk Automatic Royal Queen Seeds

Genetic background Early Skunk x Critical x Ruderalis
Yield indoor 400 - 450 g/m2
Height indoor 40 - 80 cm
Flowering time 6 - 7 weeks
THC strength THC: 15% (aprox.) / CBD: Low
Blend 30% Sativa, 50% Indica, 15% Ruderalis
Yield outdoor 60 - 110 g/per plant (dried)
Height outdoor 60 - 100 cm
Harvest time 8 - 9 weeks after germination
Effect Cerebral and uplifting
 

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